Biochimie 2011 Jan; 93(1): 1-3
Which alkylglycerols from shark liver oil have anti-tumour activities?
Anne-Laure Deniau, Paul Mosset, Damien Le Bot, Alain B Legrand
Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in shark liver oil (SLO), and oral SLO or alkyl-Gro mix from this source have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of haematopoiesis an immunological defences, or anti-tumour and anti-metastasis activities in vivo. Composition of natural alkyl-Gro mix contains several alkyl-Gro varying by chain length and unsaturation, and individual anti-tumour activity of each molecule present in natural mix remained unknown. We synthesized six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro. Using an in vivo model of grafted tumour in mice (3LL cells), we studied and compared the oral anti-tumour and anti-metastasis activities of each of these 6 alkyl-Gro. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0) or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) effect. Spleen weights at day 20 after graft were also measured and showed tremendous variations depending on the treatment. Tumour graft resulted in a raise in spleen weight in control group, this raise was nearly abolished in 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro-treated mice, and was reduced in 14:0 and 16:0 alkyl-Gro-treated mice. Conversely, 18:0 alkyl-Gro-treated mice showed spleen weigh raise as compared with untreated grafted mice. These new data demonstrate a prominent role of unsaturation in the anti-tumour activities of alkyl-Gro.