Journal of Medicinal Food 9(3) 2006, 300-306
Inhibition of Pro-Angiogenic Factors by a Lipid-Rich Shark Extract
L Yuan, M Yoshida, and P F. Davis.
This study aimed to determine whether a shark muscle oil-olive oil mixture influences activators of human angiogenesis. The mixture completely abolished the stimulation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2, transforming growth factor-beta, and platelet-derived growth factor. This suggests that it may compete with these growth factors for their binding sites on the endothelial cell surface either by binding to the growth factor or by blocking the actual receptor. The possibility of the oil binding to the VEGF receptor was studied through the use of soluble forms of the receptors (VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2). It was found that the shark oil-olive oil inhibited the formation of the complexes of VEGF with both of the receptors. This could have been because the oil bound to either the VEGF or the receptor or both. To determine which is possible, the shark oil-olive oil was mixed with the receptors. The molecular size of the receptors increased, and these larger forms of the receptor had reduced capacity for complexing with VEGF. Therefore, one mode of potential anti-angiogenic action of the shark muscle oil-olive oil is the inhibition of the activity of a number of stimulatory molecules, including VEGF. This study demonstrates that the blend of shark and olive oils antagonizes VEGF activity by binding to at least two receptors for the factor, thereby inhibiting the activation by the growth factor.